Nine Indian states are among the top 50 states globally that have become vulnerable to climate change, according to the latest report by Cross Dependency Initiative (XDI). As per the 2023 Gross Domestic Climate Risk Report by XDI, these states are Punjab, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Assam, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Kerala, and Gujarat.

As per the report, while Bihar has been ranked at 22nd position, Uttar Pradesh and Assam positioned at 25th and 28th spot, respectively in the list. Punjab has been ranked at 48th position, Rajasthan has been ranked 32nd, whereas Tamil Nadu has been ranked 36th in the list. Maharashtra, Gujarat, and Kerala have been ranked at 38th, 44th, and 50th positions, respectively.

According to the index, Asia dominated the list of provinces at risk by aggregated damage ratio (ADR) with as many as 114 regions of the top 200 falling into this region. The list includes 29 such regions in China, 9 in India , and 3 in the U.S.

“South Asia has 24 of the top 200. After China, India has the highest number of states in the top 50 (9), with Punjab, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, and Assam ranking highest,” the report said. The report has calculated climate risks in more than 2,600 states and provinces in 2050.

“Damage Ratio is an expression of the Annual Average Loss from extreme weather damage to a property as a fraction of the replacement cost of that property. It is expressed as a ratio to enable comparability of physical risk unaffected by exchange rates, inflation and other variables.” XDI said.

“Aggregated Damage Ratio looks at the total amount of damage to the built environment in a particular province.  Damage Ratios are aggregated and normalized to give insight into the extent of risk to the built environment as a whole so that states with more stock exposed can be identified,” it added.

In South East Asia, Pakistan, Jakarta, Beijing, Hồ Chí Minh City, and Taiwan are among the other regions that are vulnerable to climate change. 

“East Asia and South-East Asia see the greatest increase in Average Damage between 1990 and 2050, and China in particular has many provinces with the greatest overall Aggregated Damage Ratio. This increase and overall risk to the built environment in 2050 is driven predominately by sea level rise and secondarily by flooding risk” in the Asia section should read “by flooding and coastal inundation,” the report said.

In China, Jiangsu, Shandong, Hebei, Guangdong and Henan are amongst the top regions that are vulnerable to climate change. “This is because these provinces are large, they host extensive industrial, trade, residential and commercial development and are exposed to coastal sea level rise and riverine and surface flooding,” the report said.

In the U.S., Florida, California, and Texas are amongst the top regions that are vulnerable to climate change.

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